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Copyright © Nancy McGough & Infinite Ink
Last modified 27-Sep-2007


About the Infinite Ink Pine Pages   This page is an overview of Pine. If you are looking for instructions for setting up and using Pine, the following Infinite Ink pages and sections may be especially useful to you.

Or you can use this form to search the web, the Infinite Ink site, or the site (my blog) for information about Pine (or about anything!).

Infinite Ink


Disclaimer & My Motivation for Creating the Infinite Ink Pine Pages   I am not affiliated with the Pine team or the University of Washington. I am simply a fan of asynchronous human-to-human messaging, such as what takes place in NNTP groups, email, & some blogs; and of being able to use a client that speaks IMAP & NNTP and runs on many platforms — including in an ssh window and on a mobile phone — to process, archive, and search the full text of these messages. As far as I know Pine is the only client that does all this.


[New!] News MetaNote   The Alpine- and Pine-related news that used to be posted here is now posted on my blog with the label ALPINE.



 On This Page  



History of the Pine Program and Its Name

The University of Washington Office of Computing & Communications created Pine in 1989 as a user-friendly character-based mail client for Unix. Pine version 1 was released to the public in 1991 and was the first IMAP client “that had more than a 2-digit user community”!  Since then it has evolved into a powerful robust customizable standards-compliant IMAP and NNTP client that is used by millions of people around the world. The UW developed the latest version, 4.64, for MS Windows and many Unix flavours, including Mac OS X. It has been ported by others to many platforms, including OS/2, BeOS, Amiga, and VMS.

The title of this page, All About PINE: POP, IMAP, NNTP, & ESMTP, and the signature that I use in public postings might lead you to believe that PINE is an acronym for POP, IMAP, NNTP, & ESMTP, but it isn't! For all the gory details about the history of Pine and its name, see Laurence Lundblade's What “Pine” Really Stands For and the UW Pine Information Center's Pine Project History and Pine Release Chronology & Version Changes.



Pine is actually a package of programs and is sometimes called “The Pine Message System.” The Unix Pine Message System is made up of the core program, Pine; the pine composer, Pico; and the pine lister of things, PilotThe PC-Pine Message System is made up of Pine, Pico, some DLLs, and uses the MS-Windows file manager for file management.

Starting with Pine 4.40, the Pine message system includes the remote-pinerc command-line tools rpload and rpdump.

Starting with Pine 4.50, the Pine message system includes mailutil, a command-line tool that helps manage remote and local mailboxes.



Why Use Pine

Millions of people use Pine. Some love it, some are ambivalent about it, and some scorn it. My goal in this “Why Use Pine” section is to explain why I'm a Pine fan and try to convince the skeptics to at least try the latest Pine, version 4.64. Below I discuss why some people think Pine is for wimps (and why they're wrong)comparison of Pine and its main competitorswhy some people prefer pine (testimonials),  and Pine's philosophyfeatures,  & sample commands.


Why Some People Think Pine is for Wimps

Pine has a reputation of being for wimps but in fact the current version, 4.64, is quite macho and it requires intelligence (which is often lacking in comp.mail.pine) to understand the documentation and to figure out how to use it optimally. The following are the main reasons that some people think Pine is for wimps.

Below are some more reasons that some people are wary of Pine.


Pine and Pico Vulnerabilities in Older Versions

Pine, along with most other mail and news clients, has had some security and privacy vulnerabilities. Fortunately, the Pine team has quickly released patches to fix these problems and there are currently no known Pine vulnerabilities (as long as you practice safe computing). To find out more about security and privacy in Pine, see Security and Privacy Features below. To find out about past Pine and Pico vulnerabilities, see the following links.

release date
pico version
      IMAP Toolkit version & comments
2007 ?
(α testing
in progress)
(Pine 5.0)

2005 Sep 28   4.64       4.10       imap-2004g
2005 Apr 28   4.63   yes   4.10       imap-2004e
2005 Jan 18   4.62   yes   4.9       imap-2004c
2004 July 15   4.61   yes   4.8       imap-2004a
2004 May 10   4.60   yes   4.7       imap-2004
2003 Sep 10   4.58   yes (fixed this but not this)   4.6   no    
2003 May 29   4.56   yes (fixed this but not this)   4.6   no    
2003 April 16   4.55   yes (fixed this but not this)   4.5   no    
2003 Jan 15   4.53   yes   4.4   no    
2003 Jan 9   4.52   yes   4.4   no    
2002 Dec 13   4.51   yes   4.4   no    
2002 Nov 20   4.50   yes (fixed this but not this)   4.3   no   imap 2002?
1st release of mailutil
(replaces chkmail,
imapcopy, imapmove,
imapxfer, mbxcopy,
mbxcreat, & mbxcvt)
2002 Jan 9   4.44   yes   4.2   no    
2001 Nov 28   4.43   yes   4.2   no    
2001 Nov 21   4.42   yes   4.2   no    
2001 Nov 16   4.41   yes   4.2   no    
2001 Sep 14   4.40   yes   4.1   no    
2001 Feb 1   4.33   yes   4.0   no    
2001 Jan 17   4.32   yes   4.0   no    
2000 Dec 5   4.31   yes   3.9   yes    
2000 Oct 26   4.30   yes   3.8   yes    
1999 Nov 17   4.21   yes   3.7   yes    
all (1990-now)   see Pine Release Chronology & Version Changes


The Problem with Receiving an Email Message that Includes a Newsgroups Header Line

In 1995 when people were using Pine 3.90 and 3.91, if an email message contained a Newsgroups header, Pine interpreted this to mean that the message was posted to the newsgroups listed in that header. If a Pine user replied to this message, Pine asked if she wanted to post her reply to the newsgroup(s). Unfortunately, many newsreaders, including tin, trn, and nn, include the Newsgroups header in a message that is sent only via email. Those newsreaders include this header in email for informational purposes only. Because of this inconsistency in the interpretation of a Newsgroups header in an email messages, Pine 3.90 and 3.91 users sometimes responded publicly to a message that was sent only by email and intended to be private. This caused all kinds of flamage to be unleashed on Pine. You can read all about the fiasco and witness the flames in

It is because of problems like this that Jamie Zawinski wrote the (now expired) Internet Draft Identification of messages delivered via both mail and news.

1996-2003: Problem Resolved

This problem was fixed in Pine 3.92, which was released on 18 March 1996, but in ...

2003: The Problem Returns

As discussed in this August-2003 thread in the pine-info mailing list, this problem re-appeared in Pine version 4.56 and is still present in the latest version of Pine (4.64). You can try to avoid it by using one of the following seven solutions.

  1. Patch and rebuild Pine using Eduardo Chappa's patch to Fix a bug that makes Pine not to give a warning if the Newsgroup header is present.
  2. Use a version of Pine that does not have this problem. (Does anyone know which is the most up-to-date version of Pine that does not have this problem???)
  3. Turn off all NNTP posting in Pine by
    1. unsetting the nntp-server variable in Pine's Main > Setup > Config screen,
    2. and if you are using Pine 4.56 or later, unsetting the nntp-server variable in all your roles,
    3. and if you are using Pine 4.56 or later, unsetting the predict-nntp-server feature,
    4. and unsetting quell-extra-post-prompt so that if Pine is about to post to a newsgroup, you will be asked if you really want to do that.
  4. (requires Pine 4.56 or later) Turn off NNTP posting in any role that can be used when the current folder type is Email by
    1. unsetting the nntp-server variable in Pine's Main > Setup > Config screen,
    2. and unsetting the nntp-server variable in all your roles that can be used when the current folder type is Email. In other words, set the nntp-server variable only in roles that have the current folder type set to either News or Specific newsgroups,
    3. and unsetting the predict-nntp-server feature. (This may not be necessary since Pine should not be able to predict the NNTP server when the current folder type is Email.)
    4. and unsetting quell-extra-post-prompt so that if Pine is about to post to a newsgroup, you will be asked if you really want to do that.
  5. Route your incoming mail messages through this Procmail recipe, which renames the Newsgroups header if it exists in an incoming mail message.
  6. Route your incoming mail messages through a Procmail recipe that adds a  Followup-To: poster  header if a Newsgroups header exists. This will prevent Pine from publicly posting a reply to a private email message, but unfortunately it will also prevent Pine from publicly posting a reply to a message that was both publicly posted and privately mailed.
  7. (not practical for most Pine users) Mainly use Pine as a newsreader, i.e. for reading, replying to, and posting newsgroup messages, and never use Pine to reply to a message that is in a mailbox (i.e., a folder of type Email).

Note that solutions #5 and #6 solve the problem only for mail messages that have been processed by the relevant Procmail recipe. Any archived mail message that contains a Newsgroups header and did not pass through one of these, or similar, Procmail recipes will be vulnerable to this problem.


Comparison of Pine and Its Main Competitors

Pine's main strengths are that 1) it's a great IMAP client and 2) it's a great non-GUI mail client. If you are looking for a program that is both of these, then Pine is the program for you. If you are not so concerned about IMAP but you want a great non-GUI mail client, then Pine's main competitor is Mutt. If you want a great IMAP client but you do not care whether it is console-based (non-GUI), then Mulberry, SeaMonkey Suite, and Thunderbird are Pine's main competitors. Below I compare Pine to these four programs.

The Non-GUI Arena: Mutt versus Pine

Some of the most vocal scorners of Pine are Mutt users. I sometimes consider switching to Mutt because it allows a user to redefine keys, it has a macro language, it can be run non-interactively so you can use it in a script, it uses an open development model (as opposed to Pine's more closed development model), and it's FLOSS. But I always come back to Pine because:

See Also:


[purple mulberry] IMAP Arena 1: Mulberry versus Pine [Updated!]

2006-Aug-20: Mulberry is now free/gratis and version 4.0.5 has been released.

2005-Sep-30: Suspension of operations - details in the gmane.mail.mulberry.user thread immediate cessation of operations of Cyrusoft and in the Slashdot message Thanks and some inside dope from an inside dope by Matt Wall

2005-Sep-29: Mulberry 4.0.4

Mulberry is a powerful robust multi-platform IMAP client and I think of it as a complement to Pine rather than a competitor. Currently I use Pine for composing and sending IMAP & NNTP messages, and I use Mulberry to monitor my incoming mailboxes & alert me when a new message arrives, to do heavy duty searching through multiple local & IMAP-accessible mailboxes, to read high-volume infrequently-read mailboxes, and to rename and reorganize my mailboxes. So far, Pine and Mulberry play well together.

My complaints about Mulberry, compared to Pine, are that it . . .

Other than that, Mulberry has a lot of features that Pine does not have including disconnected support, more powerful address-book lookup & auto expansion, LDAP authentication, more powerful mailbox searching especially across multiple mailboxes or using multiple search conditions, monitoring of IMAP and POP mailboxes and mailbox-specific alerts, text macros, nice PGP and S/MIME integration. Also it satisfies the first four items in my Pine philosophy list (standards-compliant, plug-and-play, cross-platform, uses non-proprietary mailbox formats). I recommend it to anyone who is looking for a GUI  IMAP client to complement Pine.

There are many others who recommend Mulberry and Pine as complementary IMAP clients including Carnegie Mellon University, Columbia University, Duke University, Medical University of South Carolina, Oberlin College, SUNY Oswego, University of Bath, University of Bristol, University of Buffalo, University of Cambridge, University of Michigan, University of New Mexico, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of Pittsburgh, University of Texas at Dallas, and University of Sussex. Please let me know of others.

See Also:


[SeaMonkey Suite logo]

IMAP Arena 2: SeaMonkey Suite and Thunderbird versus Pine

The not-for-profit SeaMonkey Suite, and its for-profit Mozilla dot COM cousin Thunderbird, are multi-platform IMAP/POP/NNTP/LDAP clients. Thunderbird version 0.8+ is also a feed client. My complaints about Mozilla-based IMAP clients, compared to Pine, are that they . . .

The things that I like about Moz compared to Pine are that it . . .

I'm starting to prefer Moz to Mulberry as my GUI complement to Pine, mainly because 1) Mulberry does not have smart local caching and 2) Mulberry does not support NNTP or RSS/Atom, both of which I use as much — or more — than IMAP.

See Also:


Why Some People Prefer Pine: Praise for Pine

Essential Companion to Other Mail Clients and Tools

In the previous section, I described how I use Pine as my primary mail tool and Mulberry as a useful companion to Pine. Many people do the reverse of this and use Pine as a companion to their primary mail client. For example, Chris Pirillo of Lockergnome had problems accessing and deleting messages in his bloated 30 megabyte INBOX and he was able to solve the problem with Pine:

“My system administrator over at DigitalDaze told me to check out PC-Pine... I'm glad I did. It's wonderful! If you want to check your e-mail remotely (IMAP), this works great. It was the only thing I could use to delete all the unwanted messages on Lockergnome's server.”

You can read the rest of Chris's GnomeREPORT here or here (search for “Pine”).


Quick Visual Scanning of a “Catchall” Mailbox for Non-Spam Messages

I agree with Chris Pirillo (quoted in the previous section) that Pine is a great tool for cleaning out mailboxes, especially a “catchall” mailbox, which for me contains mostly spam. The way I deal with my catchall mailbox is to open it about once a week and sort (order) it in a way that makes it easy for me to scan the Pine Message Index and find the non-spam messages, if there are any.


Sort a Mailbox by Spam Score

If the messages in your catchall mailbox have been tagged with a spam score by a spam-detection tool, such as SpamAssassin, you can locate non-spam messages by sorting the mailbox by spam score using either Pine's

The non-spam messages should bubble to the top of the sort since they should have low spam scores. I discuss these techniques and more about my spam strategy in Using a MaybeSpam Mailbox and Reverse Spam Filtering: Winning Without Fighting.


Sort a Mailbox by Size

If you aren't able to have your catchall messages tagged with a spam score, you can sort the mailbox by size or reverse-size using  $Z  or   $Z$R  so that all messages that are essentially the same are grouped together. For me, non-spam messages are usually pretty small and the very large messages are all spam. Also, repeats of the same spam message are grouped together and easy to spot and delete.

[Tip]   Scanning-For-Non-Spam Tips    
  • When my catchall mailbox contains a lot of messages, I ssh to a Unix system, fire up the remote Pine on my catchall mailbox, and sort and visually scan the mailbox there. I do this because my local machine has a slow dial-up connection to the Net and it's much faster to page through the Message Index using a remote Pine that's on a system that has a fast connection to the IMAP server.

  • If you use Pine scores, you might want to include the SCORE token in your Pine index-format variable so that the score will be displayed in the Pine Message Index.


Miscellaneous Pine Praise

On 15 October 2002, reuben posted the following in the thread Can you advice me, an email software with IMAP?? at

“PINE  ...  does everything that every other email client does. it is way more flexible, versatile, powerful, and lightweight. text based and slightly difficult to configure, but once you learn it, it's lightning fast, and you'll never want to use anything else again.”



On 4 April 2002, the following was posted at by Anonymous in a hint titled A few scripts to help with Pine integration:

“I installed Pine on my OS X box, and love it. It is the only email program that can keep up with my volume of mail. It is text only, but there is nothing that can touch it for speed and power.”


The next is an excerpt of a message that was posted to the IMAP mailing list. It mentions how unusual Pine is because of its adherence to open standard protocols...

Message-Id: <>
Date: Wed, 27 Mar 2002 13:06:24 -0800
From: "Larry Osterman" <>
To: "Mark Crispin" <>
Cc: "Marek Kowal" <>, <>
Subject: RE: Outlook express AUTH command

ObCaveat: Anyone who has read this list for any length of time knows I
strongly support open standard protocols.


Every vendor needs to make a decision at some point about supporting 
their customers vs. supporting standards. Just about every server 
I know of has made compromises in this area. Every client out there 
has its own areas that it violates the protocol (with the possible 
exception of PINE, I'm not aware of any violations in PINE). 


You can read the rest of this message and the entire (very interesting) thread in the IMAP mailing list archives on the web or via IMAP at imap://


Below is a message that was posted to about MH-formatted folders, IMAP, and Pine.

From: (Chris Menzel)
Subject: Re: mh as an imap backing store?
Date: 13 Feb 2001 16:40:48 GMT
Organization: Texas A&M University
Message-ID: <>
References: <3_Ug6.3622$>

On Fri, 09 Feb 2001 16:34:07 GMT, Paul Fox
<> said:
> some docs i found for the U of W imapd suggest that it can use
> mh folders as a backing store.  is this true?  can anyone comment
> on how well it works?  typically i use mh, but on the road it
> might be nice to be able to get at my mail via imap.
Well, I'm not sure what a backing store is, but I use mh folders and
access them via (secure) IMAP, both locally and remotely, using pine,
which does a spectacular job of handling mh folders as an imap client.
Pine, as you probably know, is also from UW, and was designed for IMAP
pretty much from the git go, so is really rock solid and *fast*.

[ deleted ]


You can read the rest of this discussion at


In Satya's review of Pine at, he says:

“Pine is fast, reliable, can handle tons of mail and is flexible too.  ...  Pine is an excellent email client and this writer recommends it to anyone who spends more than 5 minutes a day on email.”


In his IMAP Client Perspectives page, Tom Karches of North Carolina State University's Information Technology Systems says PC-Pine is the:


Here is a message that was posted to the Slashdot poll on “Which email client do you use?”.

Re:If a tree falls in the woods... (Score:3, Insightful) by dattaway ( on Wednesday July 14, @10:57AM EDT (#25) (User Info)
I have used Pine since 1995 and its the only mail program I have used that has never gave me any problems, such as hijacking my mail spool that I like to grep. I still have my old email archives, unlike those lost from the viral adventures of windowsland eudora and friends. It has an interface that is telnet friendly over cell phone or from work. Its menu is simple and productive through keystrokes, unlike groupwise that curses me at work. I have tried other mail programs than Pine, but many seem to hijack the mail spool and assimilate it into their own strange format. So, I stick with trusty old Pine.


Here is a message posted to comp.mail.pine by Mark Crispin, the inventor of IMAP.

From: Mark Crispin <mrc@CAC.Washington.EDU>
Subject: Re: Why using pine?
Date: 11 Dec 1999 00:00:00 GMT
Message-ID: <Pine.NXT.4.30.9912110030430.954-100000@Tomobiki-Cho.CAC.Washington.EDU>
References: <>
Organization: Networks & Distributed Computing
Newsgroups: comp.mail.pine

On Sat, 11 Dec 1999, Andrei Tchepurnyh wrote:
> I am just wondering why people using Pine.
> Is it a better mail-program or what? I've tried Pine on PC and found
> that Netscape is much easier to use for me. But why so many people are
> still using Pine?

Pine is a much better mail program than Netscape.

Pine has fewer bugs and is much more reliable.  Read comp.mail.imap for a
taste of the ongoing problems people have with Netscape.

Pine is much faster.  Pine consistantly measures as being one of the
fastest (if not THE FASTEST) IMAP clients available.  Pine is one of the
few IMAP clients which works well over dialups and radio links.

Pine is much more secure.  Pine supports Kerberos and CRAM-MD5
authentication.  Pine doesn't leave a copy of all your mail on the PC
where anybody can read it.

Pine scales much better when you have many mailboxes and/or have thousands
of messages in a single mailbox.  Very few, if any, of the pretty GUI IMAP
clients work well when you have more than a few hundred messages in a

UNIX Pine is open source.  If you don't like a decision of the developers,
or want to fix a bug, you can do so.  [PC Pine is currently not open
source, for reasons out of the control of the Pine developers.]

UNIX Pine interoperates with other UNIX mail tools.  It will read whatever
layout of mailbox files you set up with other programs, and doesn't force
you to do something specific for it.

Just about the only thing that Pine doesn't do well (yet) is handling of
non-English character sets.  This is coming in a future version.

Bottom line:

Netscape is for people who want pretty pictures and modest needs.  Pine is
an "industrial strength" mail program for people who have "industrial
strength" mail needs.

-- Mark --

* RCW 19.190 notice: This email address is located in Washington State. *
* Unsolicited commercial email may be billed $500 per message.          *
Science does not emerge from voting, party politics, or public debate.

You can read the rest of this comp.mail.pine discussion on “Why using pine?”— and participate in it — at


And here is another message from Mark Crispin, this one posted to comp.mail.imap.

From: Mark Crispin <mrc@CAC.Washington.EDU>
Newsgroups: comp.mail.imap
Organization: Networks & Distributed Computing
Message-ID: <Pine.NXT.4.33.0101261913570.10813-100000@Tomobiki-Cho.CAC.Washington.EDU>
References: <94tbu3$np8$>
Date: Fri, 26 Jan 2001 19:17:00 -0800
To: Mindspring <>
Subject: Re: Outlook 2000 vs Outlook Express 5 vs other IMAP clients

On Fri, 26 Jan 2001, Mindspring wrote:
> 1) Besides Outlook and Outlook Express, what are other IMAP clients that I
> can test against my server. I am going to check out Mulberry from cyrusoft -
> but I was wondering if there are others.  This is from Windows clients.  I
> guess I can try Netscape.  What about Pine?

Yes, you definitely want to try Pine.  Pine is one of a small handful of
clients (Mulberry is another) which thoroughly use the full suite of IMAP
functionality.  Pine will find problems in an IMAP server implementation
that the browser-based clients will glibly ignore.

-- Mark --
Science does not emerge from voting, party politics, or public debate.

You can read the rest of this comp.mail.imap discussion on “Outlook 2000 vs Outlook Express 5 vs other IMAP clients”— and participate in it — at



Seven Philosophical Reasons to Use Pine

To me, choosing to use Pine is more than just a software choice. By using Pine, I am choosing not to use a bloated commercial proprietary program and I am choosing to support a standards-based, plug-and-play, multi-platform program that is shipped with its source code. Pine . . .

  1. uses the latest Internet messaging standards including IMAP, NNTP, ESMTP, SMTP, MIME, LDAP, Kerberos, SSH, TLS/SSL, vCards, RFC2822: Internet Message Format (RFC822's replacement), RFC2076: Common Internet Message Headers, RFC2554: SMTP authentication (AKA SMTP AUTH). Pine can also be used to access POP inboxes — for details about using Pine as a POP client, see Infinite Ink's Accessing and “Popping” POP Inboxes.

  2. understands many mailbox formats, including legacy and standard plaintext formats. To find out about the benefits of plaintext, see The Joy of Plaintext by Zimran Ahmed.

  3. uses the plug-and-play software model (modular architecture) so you can plug in external programs to help you access and process—edit, encrypt/decrypt, filter, and so on—your messages.

  4. works on many platforms so you do not need to learn a new mailer or news reader when you use another operating system.

  5. treats mail and news messages essentially the same so you can use the same user interface and commands in both realms.

  6. is available gratis (free of charge).

  7. is shipped with its source code so you can customize it using your own patches or the patches available on the Net. Note that starting with version 4.00, the PC-Pine source code is no longer available because it contains a built-in proprietary spell-checking program.


[Updated!] Free/Libre Open Source Software and Pine

[HOT] News
The next version of Pine will be called Alpine and will be released under a FLOSS license. Details are at the University of Washington Alpine Information Center.


Pine is free of charge (gratis) and Unix Pine is shipped with its source code but because of restrictions the University of Washington puts on what you can do with the code, it does not satisfy either Bruce Perens definition of “open-source software” or Richard Stallman's definition of “free software” (AKA “libre software”). For more about these terms, see

For more about this issue, including discussion, see:


Philosophy Summary

If you are committed to using only free (libre) or open-source (Bruce Perens definition) software, then Pine is not an option for you and you will need to use a messaging client such as Mutt or, which are each free in all senses of the word. But if you use software — such as Dreamweaver, Mulberry, SecureCRT, Powermarks, or Mac OS X — that does not satisfy these strict definitions, Pine is an option for you.

If Pine is an option for you, the seven philosophical reasons I list above are probably not enough to help you decide if Pine is the right mail and news program for you. Pine's features, some of which are listed below, are the main reasons over ten million people use Pine.


Key Features

Security and Privacy Features

As you have probably heard, email viruses and bugs can damage your computer, your friends' computers, and even your life (for example, if a private message or file is automatically mailed to everyone in your address book). To minimize your risk, practice safe computing and use a mail client, such as Pine, that

  1. is regularly updated to guard against the latest exploits
  2. lets you customize how it handles attachments and HTML messages
  3. lets you specify the names of directories, user files and file extensions. This way you may be able to hide personal data from viruses such as the Welyah virus (AKA Shoho or I-Worm), which harvests email addresses from *.mbx files. For more about this, see Use Non-Standard Directory and File Names on my Power Pine page.
  4. lets you do secure authentication and secure message access using protocols such as SSL/TLS. (This of course is useful only if you have an ISP that supports secure authentication and message access!)

Pine in its default configuration is vulnerable to executable attachments but, unlike many other mail clients, you can fix this vulnerability by using either a global or pine-specific mailcap file. In the rest of this section I discuss email vulnerabilities, how you can protect yourself from some of them, and security & privacy areas that I think Pine needs improvement.

Starting with Pine 4.0, Pine can do basic rendering of a message body (or body part) that is in HTML format. Because Pine can not display images, Pine users are not vulnerable to the "bugged" HTML messages that are described in these articles:

Another problem with HTML messages is that they can contain scripts, which can be used to invade your privacy or infect your system. The following articles describe examples of this.

The Pine internal HTML parser does not run scripts so Pine users are not vulnerable to these type of HTML bugs either. If you want to avoid HTML as much as possible, you can tell Pine to not display HTML in a message that is of MIME type “multipart/alternative” by setting the feature prefer-plain-text in your Pine configuration. If you receive an attachment that is of MIME type “text/html”, Pine will use your mailcap file (if text/html is listed in it) or your url-viewer setting to determine how to display the HTML attachment. To ensure that HTML attachments don't cause problems, set your pine-launched HTML viewer to not display images or run scripts.

In the Security section on my Power Pine page, I discuss setting up a mailcap file to avoid bugs and viruses that are spread via attachments; setting up SASL, SSL/TSL, and SSH port forwarding for IMAP authentication & connection security; and more. Even though that page focuses on PC-Pine, the discussion is relevant to Unix Pine and Pine running on other systems. My Pine Security-Enhancement Wishes section below describe some areas where I think Pine security could be improved.


[Updated!] Miscellaneous Features

Pine has a clean interface, all the standard features most mailers and news readers have, and you can do everything using efficient keystroke commands. In addition, with Pine you can:

Finally, because of Pine's keyboard and ASCII nature, it is one of the Internet programs that can easily be used by people with disabilities.


Sample Commands

Some of Pine's power commands do not seem intuitive but once you learn them, you will be able to process messages more quickly than you can with most other mailers and news readers. Here are examples of some Pine commands that are powerful and quick (after you learn them).

Command What it does
* * flag the current message as important
; A A D delete all messages in the current mailbox or newsgroup

; A A S foldername

save all messages in the current mailbox or newsgroup to foldername
; T A string Z display a virtual mailbox of all messages in the current folder or newsgroup that contain string in the body or header of the message
; S * Z display a virtual mailbox of all message that are flagged important
; S N Z display a virtual mailbox of all message that are unread
; S ! A Z display a virtual mailbox of all message that are unanswered
$ O sort all messages in the current mailbox or newsgroup by Ordered subject (simulates threading)
$ H sort all messages in the current mailbox or newsgroup by tHread (available in 4.30 and later)
$ Z $ R

sort all messages in the current mailbox or newsgroup by reverse size; you can use this to help you visually scan a “catchall” mailbox and see if any non-spam snuck past your reverse spam filters

^W + CR ^W ^X Z
(note CR = carriage return)
display a virtual mailbox of all messages in the current mailbox or newsgroup that contain your email address, or one of your alt-addresses, in the To header


If you are not a Pine user, these commands probably look cryptic but they are actually logical and easy to memorize. For example, I remember  ; A A D  by thinking  Select All Apply Delete  (because ;=Select, A=All, A=Apply, and D=Delete). After you use Pine's power commands for a few weeks, you will be able to quickly invoke these key sequences.

  In order to use Pine's power commands you need to edit your Pine configuration so that these features are turned on. Details about this are at Useful Settings for Power Users on Infinite Ink's Power Pine page. For example, the command sequences above that start with ; or ^W will work only if the feature enable-aggregate-command-set is set.  



Discussion Groups

The best place to discuss Pine is the Usenet group comp.mail.pine, which you can access using any of the following URLs:

Before you post a question to a discussion group:

If you are able to answer someone's question, please post your answer to the group so that others — both now and in the future — can benefit from your answer. Answering publicly will also let others know that the question has been answered so they do not spend time answering it themselves. If you post a question to a group, do not ask people to mail the answer only to you. I, and many others, never answer these types of posts because they show that the person who posted the question does not want the group to benefit from discussion of the question. If you have flaky access to Usenet, you can ask people to both post and mail responses.



A sport in Internet discussion groups is flaming and Pine users seem to be a popular target of this sport. Here is an example that made it into

Subject: [] Re: Pine, Kill files & deletes

If you don't like flames, you can use Pine filters, which are available in Pine 4.20 and later, to "kill" flamers so you won't see messages from them. To set up a filter, either type MSRRF (Main > Setup > Rules > Roles > Filters) or when you are viewing a message from a flamer type TF (TakeTo > Filters). If someone is especially obnoxious, I set the filter folder type to "Any" so both the flamer's news and email messages are automatically deleted. To me this is a very satisfying response. And a side benefit is that flamers are quite annoyed by being ignored.

Another way to deal with a flame, especially one directed at you, is to have a Zen attitude and just let it roll over you, smiling silently to yourself about the paradoxical nature of the universe.

For more about Pine flames, see Sven Guckes' Flaming - Internet Xtreme Sports - NancyBoys!, which is archived at The Wayback Machine here, and at a number of other URLs listed here.



  • PGP and GnuPG
  • Using Pine in a SSH (Secure Shell) Window
  • Searching Through Mailboxes -- for a discussion of mailbox formats, IMAP servers, and search efficiency see the comp.mail.imap message Re: Q: Fast searching Imap server
  • Syncing and Snarfing Mailboxes
    (CAUTION: You may have problems if both Pine and another program access a mailbox at the same time.)
  • More Companion Programs
  • Pine and Pico Derivatives
  • Uncategorized
  • MetaLinks (links to pages that link to pages about Pine)



    [New!] Wish #1: Feed Wishes

    My #1 wish is that Pine supported [Feed] protocols. I currently use the Genecast feed-to-NNTP service and the RssFwd feed-to-SMTP service, along with filters, to deflect feed items to some of my Pine incoming folders, but it would be great if Pine natively supported feed protocols (Atom, APP, RSS) in the same ways that it natively supports POP, IMAP, and NNTP (i.e., both via #move folders and via direct access). If the upcoming Alpine (Pine 5.0+) supported the Atom publishing format & protocol, we could say:

     ALPINE: Atom
             ESMTP client

    Note: Since Alpine is free/libre open source software, anyone is free to patch and distribute a version of Alpine that supports feed protocols (hint, hint).

    See Also: My blog item titled Email Clients That Don't Consume and Produce Feeds are Doomed.



    Wish #1: Easy Zoom to RECENT Messages

    News:  Thanks to the Pine Team, this has been added to Pine 4.62, which was released 2005-Jan-18. To zoom to RECENT messages in Pine 4.62 and later, type the following in the Pine MESSAGE INDEX:

    ; S R Z

    This means ;select Status Recent Zoom. I have gotten in the habit of typing the following when I open a very active mailing-list folder:

    ; S R Z $ H W ^Y

    This means ;select Status Recent Zoom $sort tHread Where ^YfirstMsg. Since Pine buffers keystrokes, I can issue this sequence of commands before the folder has finished opening.

    (The following is now mostly obsolete, but I'm leaving it here until I figure out where to move some of the useful non-obsolete info.) 
    My #1 Pine wish is was to be able to use Pine's aggregate command operations to quickly select and zoom in on RECENT messages in the current mailbox. You can currently select based on the Status of messages by going to the MESSAGE INDEX and typing:

    ; S

    Pine displays this prompt:

    Select New, Deleted, Answered, or Important messages ?                                                      
     ? Help           N New             D Deleted         ! Not                                                 
    ^C Cancel         * [Important]     A Answered 			

    Here “New” means “Not seen” (aka “Not read”) and there is no option to select messages with RECENT status. The workaround is to do one of the following:

    These workarounds are a pain to type and sometimes inaccurate. It would be great if selecting based on status (;S) presented a prompt similar to this:

    Select Recent, NotRead, Deleted, Answered, or Important messages ?                                                      
     ? Help           R [Recent]      D Deleted       * Important                                                
    ^C Cancel         N NotRead       A Answered      ! Not      

    The reason I have made Recent the default (i.e., surrounded it with square brackets) is because it seems like it would be the most common selection — it certainly would be my most common selection!


    Wish #2A: List the Relevant INBOX in Every IMAP Collection

    In the current Pine (4.64), an IMAP FOLDER LIST displays a list of mailboxes and directories that are in a particular directory (or namespace) on an IMAP server. On many IMAP servers the INBOX, which is the user's default incoming mailbox on a particular IMAP server, is located in a completely separate location, for example /var/spool/mail/username, and it is not listed in any Pine FOLDER LIST. Instead, it needs to be specified in the Pine incoming-folders variable and is listed in the Pine Incoming-Folders pseudo collection. This means that it is impossible for a Pine user to get a single list of all her mailboxes on a particular IMAP server. One way to make this possible would be to give users an option like this:

    [ Folder Preferences ] 
              [X]  enable-nickname-inbox-in-imap-collections

    And then, if this option were set, every IMAP FOLDER LIST would contain the relevant INBOX, i.e., the INBOX for that user on that IMAP server. Since in Pine the string INBOX is reserved to mean the folder that is specified by the Pine inbox-path variable, the display name for this particular INBOX could be the Collection's nickname followed by the string -inbox. For example, if a Collection has the nickname Tuffmail, then the Tuffmail FOLDER LIST would look something like this:


    I've placed Tuffmail-inbox at the end of the list because I think that's where I would prefer it, but this could be controlled by the folder-sort-rule or some other Pine setting. If a Collection did not have a nickname, the INBOX could either be not listed or be listed as simply -inbox.

    A feature like this would be especially useful to people who have accounts at many different IMAP service providers. Currently setting up a new IMAP account requires editing the folder-collections variable and the incoming-folders variable. If a feature like this existed, a user would need only to specify an account in her folder-collections list and then she could access all mailboxes — including the INBOX — on that account from that Pine FOLDER LIST screen.

    A possible alternative solution to this problem would be to use an IMAP namespace named, for example, #personal, which could be used to display all of a user's personal mailboxes (including INBOX). With such a namespace there would be no need to include the INBOX specification in the inbox-path or incoming-folders list because it would be automatically included in the #personal namespace. I discuss this idea in this 2005-May-26 message that I posted in comp.mail.imap. Does anyone know if such a namespace exists and if any IMAP server supports it?



    Wish #2B: Improve the Collection Setup User Interface

    In addition to wishing for the above Wish #2A collection functionality, I wish that the PINE SETUP screen made it easier for users to figure out how to set up an IMAP or NNTP collection. Currently the SETUP (MS) screen includes this:

    PINE 4.64   SETUP
    (L) collectionLists:
        You may define groups of folders to help you better organize your mail.

    I think it would be more clear if the word “account” appeared in this item. For example, maybe it could say something like this:

    (L) collectionLists on local and remote systems:
        Define groups of folders on IMAP accounts, NNTP accounts, and on the local system

    Also, move this item up near the top of the SETUP page where it will be more noticeable. Finally, I suggest including "IMAP Server" and "NNTP Server" on the SETUP CONFIGURATION (MSC) screen and telling users, e.g. in the built-in Help, that these are set up via the SETUP COLLECTION LIST (MSL) screen.



    Wish #3: Filter Wishes

    I wish that Pine filters . . .

    1. were easier to directly edit in a Pine configuration file. Currently a Pine filter is specified as one (very) long line, as you can see in Eduardo Chappa's examples of Filtering From your Pinerc, and this can be extremely painful to edit. A possible solution would be to allow line continuation (e.g. using backslash (\), followed by linefeed, followed by whitespace) in the Pine patterns-filters2 variable. This would make it possible to split one Pine filter specification across multiple lines.

    2. used the Sieve mail filtering language, which is on the path to becoming an Internet standard (see RFC 3028 and 3028bis). Sieve is used by Mulberry, Horde/IMP/Ingo, SquirrelMail/avelsieve, and other standards-based mail clients and servers.

    3. supported the ManageSIEVE protocol so Pine users would have the option to upload some or all of their Pine filters to their mail server. These server-side filters would then be run on email messages when they arrive at the server.

    To learn more about Pine filters, see Using a Pine Filter to Automatically Move Messages on the Power Pine page.

    Tip: If you are looking for a provider that supports the ManageSIEVE protocol and server-side Sieve filters, check out the IMAP Service Providers page. For example,, supports Sieve and ManageSIEVE.


    Wish #4: Keyword (Label) Wishes

    News:  Pine 4.62, which was released 2005-Jan-18, satisfies a number of these Keyword wishes -- thank you to the Pine Team! For details about keywords in 4.62, see Setting Up Keywords (Labels) on the Power Pine page, which I just updated to reflect the new 4.62 features. (I still need to update this section so that it also reflects the new 4.62 features.)

    Starting with Pine 4.60, Pine supports keywords, which are also known as user-defined labels or user-defined flags. I describe how to set up and use keywords in Pine in Setting Up Keywords (Labels) on the Power Pine page. Here are some of my Pine keyword wishes.

    1. Be able to set up the SUBJKEY token so that when it is used in the index-format:
      • keywords are displayed in a color that is different from the color of the SUBJECT
      • each keyword has its own color
      • the surrounding squiggly braces can be eliminated or replaced with different delimiter characters (as I discuss here and here, I recommend using squiggly braces to surround "spam" and "big" tags that are injected into the beginning of the actual Subject header)
      For an example of colored keywords in a message index, see the upcoming FastMail web-based IMAP client (also here) and this Gmail Sneak Peek.
    2. Have two additional tokens: one that displays the initial (first letter) of each keyword and one that displays the full (non-abbreviated) keywords. These tokens could, for example, be called KEYINIT and KEY. The KEYINIT token would be similar to the IMAPSTATUS token and would be especially useful in the index-format variable. The KEY token could be used, along with the SUBJECT token, as an alternative to the SUBJKEY token.
    3. Have a token called, for example, SUBJKEYINIT, which would be similar to SUBJKEY but instead of prepending the SUBJECT field with the full keywords, it would prepend the SUBJECT field with the initial (first letter) of each keyword.
    4. Have an option to have no space between keywords in the SUBJKEY and in the above-wished-for KEYINIT, KEY, and SUBJKEYINIT tokens. This would save screen real estate and be especially useful when using single-character or initials of keywords.
    5. Be able to sort (order) a mailbox by keyword so that messages with the same keyword are grouped together. If a message has multiple keywords, the sort could use the first keyword. One use of this would be to assign keywords based on spam probability and then be able to sort the messages by spam probability -- without needing to modify the actual Subject of each possibly-spam message (which is a technique I suggest in Sort a Mailbox by Spam Score above).
    6. Be able to use the Where command (^W) to search for keywords that are displayed on the MESSAGE INDEX.
    7. Enable keyboard shortcuts for applying/clearing each keyword. For example, it is currently possible to set the Important flag by typing ** (if enable-flag-screen-implicitly is not set). It would be nice to be able to apply my W (Waiting for a reply) keyword by typing *W, my E (Example) keyword by typing *E, etc.
    8. On the FLAG MAINTENANCE screen:
      • let the user specify the order that the flags/keywords are listed (currently system-defined flags are listed at the top)
      • enable keyboard shortcuts for quickly setting/clearing flags/keywords
      • list both the Keyword Real Name (e.g., $Label1) and the Keyword Nickname
      • have commands available on this screen for adding, deleting, or re-ordering keywords
    9. In addition to being able to use ;K to select messages with or without a specific keyword, be able to select messages that have no keyword set or that have at least one keyword set. In other words, be able to search for the existence (or non-existence) of an unspecified keyword. This would be useful if you use David Allen's Getting Things Done strategy and you want to make sure that you have assigned a keyword to every message.
    10. Be able to select (;) messages based on keywords and other conditions that are in a pre-defined Rule pattern. This would make it possible to have saved “Views” or “Virtual Mailboxes.” According to this message, this will be possible in Pine 4.62.
    11. Be able to set a keyword on a message that is in an NNTP or POP mailbox and then save it (the message and its keyword) to an IMAP mailbox. You can currently do this with the Important flag (*), but in order to do it with a keyword you need to 1) save the message to the target IMAP mailbox and 2) go to the target IMAP folder and set the keyword there.
    12. Be able to set a keyword on an Fcc'd (Folder carbon copied) message or a postponed message. This would be especially useful if you use Pine as a Personal Information Manager (PIM) and use postponed or Fcc'd messages for To-Do list items. Note that Pine users can already control the status of Fcc'd messages by setting or clearing the mark-fcc-seen feature.
    13. Have a variable similar to saved-msg-name-rule, maybe called saved-msg-key-rule, that could be used to automatically assign a keyword when saving a message.
    14. Have Pine give a warning if a message contains a keyword that cannot be displayed by the current instance of Pine because it is not listed in this Pine's keyword variable. This could happen if, for example, the keyword was set by a delivery agent such as Procmail or by a different mail client or a different instance of Pine.
    15. Have Pine give a warning if a keyword will be lost, for example if a message with a keyword is being copied to a server that does not support keywords.
    16. In PC-Pine, be able to use the drop-down menu-bar Message menu (left-click) or the contextual pop-out menu (right-click) to set or clear a keyword. It is currently possible to do this with system-defined flags (Important, Answered, Deleted, etc.).

    For more information about keywords, see:


    Wish #5: Make it Easier to Change the Default From Header in Unix and Mac Pine

    The most frequently asked question about Pine is “How do I change my From header?” This is an F-A-Q because you cannot set the user-id variable in Unix Pine and Pine's built-in Help for personal-name and user-domain do not explain . . .

    What you need to do to get around not being able to set the user-id fragment of the email address.

    Making this easier would help Pine adhere to the goals of the University of Washington, especially this goal:

    “It is intended that Pine can be learned by exploration rather than reading manuals.”

    And it would, I hope, reduce the frequency of this question in the Pine discussion groups! This was discussed in the pine-info mailing list and Frank Tobin posted an insightful message in which he said:

    “If it was possible to do this from the on-line Pine configuration, such as you can do in the PC-Pine version, it wouldn't be a FAQ.”

    Mike A. Harris responded with an eloquent message in which he said:

    “A lot of software FAQ's exist because a program does not do what users expect it to do. An "FAQ" is a hint to software engineers to design the software in such a way that no FAQ is required.”

    I responded with a possible solution that would make changing the From header easier.

    Another possible solution is to change the Pine Setup screen so that the first item (or region of the Setup screen) were “Set Default Role” and a user would go there to set the default signature, template, Fcc, and headers (From, Organization, Bcc, etc.). In addition to making it easy to set the From header, this would help users to understand that these settings are an example of a role. I discuss roles and lots more about this on Changing Your From Header in Pine -- this page includes links to many other web pages that discuss this problem and its solutions.

    Wish #6: Let Users Choose Their Default Local Mailbox Format

    As I discuss above in my list of Pine Features, one of the great things about Pine is that it can access, update, and create many different local mailbox formats, including MH, c-client MBX, and traditional Unix mail spool (mbox) formats. And if a mailbox resides on an IMAP server, Pine lets the IMAP protocol and the IMAP server deal with the mailbox format so that any format that's supported by the server can be accessed, updated, and created by Pine. This includes MS Exchange, Lotus, Cyrus, maildir, and many other mailbox formats.

    I am a big fan of modularization and in the ideal world, everyone would access mailboxes using a protocol such as IMAP or NNTP and the issue of mailbox formats would be dealt with by the protocol & the server and be independent of the client. Unfortunately, many of us use a system on which we do not have control of things like the IMAP server and we need to use old-fashioned file-system calls to access some of our mailboxes. For those of us in this situation, it would be great if it were possible for a user to tell Pine what default local mailbox format to use. For more about this issue, see:

    If this is one of your Pine wishes, please participate in the pine-info discussion with subject Re: folder format in pcpine — it seems that this feature is being considered by the Pine Team!


    [Updated!] Miscellaneous Pine Wishes

    The Pine wishes in this section are in addition to my #1, #2, #3, #4, and #5 wishes above and my categorized wishes below.


    Status, Flag, and Label Wishes

    Two of my high priority wishes are Easy Zoom to RECENT Messages and Keyword (Label) Wishes. Below are more of my status, flag, and label wishes.


    Pine Built-In Editor and Pico Wishes


    Security-Enhancement Wishes

    For information about Pine security, see the Security and Privacy Features section above and the Security section of my Power Pine page.


    GUI and PC-Pine Wishes


    Other People's Wish Lists

    For more Pine wishes, including some more of my Pine wishes, see the Pine wishlists of Sven Guckes, Aaron Hawley, and the Freshmeat Pine page.

    The Mutt wish list contains a lot of things that I'd like to see in Pine.


    Pine Promotion

    Why Promote Pine
    If you are a fan of standards-compliant software, open-source software, modularized software, or any of the other things that I list in the Pine philosophy section above, please help spread the word about Pine 4.64. Even if you do not use Pine, or you do not use it as both an IMAP client and NNTP client, you can still fight closed-source, proprietary, non-standards-compliant software by letting people know that Pine is an alternative to bloated, proprietary, non-standards-compliant, non-modularized IMAP and NNTP clients.

    News and Email Software Lists
    If you see a list of mail or news clients for a platform that Pine runs on and Pine isn't listed, ask the author to add Pine to the list. Many people do not know there is a Win32 version of Pine or that Pine is also a news reader so Pine, unfortunately, does not show up in a lot of lists it should be in.

    Here are sites that include Pine in both mail and news client lists: Here are sites that include Pine in only their mail client lists:
    And here are some sites that do not include Pine at all:

    If you are inspired, ask the last two to add PC-Pine to their mail client lists, ask the last nine to add Pine or PC-Pine to their news reader lists, and ask all these sites to list the latest version of Pine (4.64).

    Service Provider Support Pages
    If your service provider has support pages telling users how to set up mail and news clients to access messages on their system, ask them to include instructions for Pine (if they don't already have them). On my IMAP Service Providers page, I have a growing list of IMAP service providers and for each of them, if it exists, a link to their Pine page. Please let me know about other IMAP service providers and the URL to their Pine page.

    Check to see if Pine can be used as a plug-in mailer or news reader in your web browser and other news-enabled and mail-enabled applications. If it can't, ask the application's developers to make it possible in a future release.

    Polls, Votes, Ratings, and Discussions
    When you find out about polls, votes, ratings, or discussions of mail or news clients, please participate and tell the Pine community about it by posting to comp.mail.pine. You can submit your vote, rating, or comment right now to . . .

    The current results of the first, third and fourth polls are available at the links above and the MisterPoll results are at Results: Best Email Client. The results of the now finished Vote for the Best Email Client are at's Pine User Page.

    Your Signature
    For messages sent to public discussion groups, use a signature that tells people you are using Pine. For example, when I post from my Linux machine I sometimes use this signature to spread the word about both Pine and Debian Linux:
     Nancy McGough    
     ----== Sent via Alpine 0.9999 running on Debian GNU/Linux ==----
    And when I post from a non-Linux machine I sometimes use the following signature to remind people that Pine is a POP, IMAP, and NNTP client, and that it runs on Unix, MS Windows, and Mac OS X:
     Nancy McGough           
     -= Sent via Alpine 0.9999: POP, IMAP, NNTP & ESMTP for Unix/Win/OS X =-
    In both of these sigs I include the version number to get the word out that there is a new version of Pine. If you are not using the latest version of Pine, I suggest that you do not include the version number in your sig (why advertise the fact that you're not on the cutting edge?!).

    You are welcome to use the last line of my sigs, or a modified version, in your signature. Let's not let ads in signatures from messages posted from, Remarq, Yahoo, CNET and other commercial news readers take over Internet discussion groups!

    Your X-Message-Flag Header
    If someone is using Outlook and a message contains an X-Message-Flag header, Outlook flags the message and displays the content of the header in the Outlook Information Bar, which is prominently displayed at the top of the message. Below is how I used to set the  customized-hdrs  variable in my pinerc (i.e., before the X-Message-Flag header became a spam indicator). The first one (Organization) spreads the word about my business, Infinite Ink, and the second one spreads the word about Pine to Outlook users:
    customized-hdrs=Organization: Infinite Ink,
      X-Message-Flag: Worried about bugs & viruses? Switch to Mac/Unix/PC Pine! Info @
    Thanks to William R. Van Kuyk, you can see a picture of how the content of my X-Message-Flag header appears in Outlook (it's only 21 KB so shouldn't take too long to download & view it). If you want to vary the contents of your X-Message-Flag and sometimes not use it, do not include X-Message-Flag in your customized-hdrs but instead use roles and the  Set Other Hdrs  action to specify the X-Message-Flag.

      Important Notes About the X-Message-Flag Header  
    • Many spam-detection tools increase the spam-probability of a message if it contains an X-Message-Flag header. Because of this, I no longer use, or recommend the use of, the X-Message-Flag header.

    • The content of Pine customized-hdrs cannot contain a comma (,). For more about customizing headers in Pine, see Changing Your From Header in Pine.

    • If the content of the X-Message-Flag header contains more than 100 characters, users of Outlook (pre Outlook 2000) will not be able to open the message, so keep it under 100 characters!

    • If an Outlook user is viewing the message on an IMAP server, the X-Message-Flag header is not displayed because the IMAP protocol does not recognize this “flag.”


    See Rodney Haywood's The Anti-Outlook Page (which is archived here) from more about the X-Message-Flag header and other ways to annoy Outlook user. Please tell me if you have more information about this mysterious header.

    Your Web Site
    A lot of people, including me, are interested in what software other people use. To help satisfy people's curiosity, I suggest that you add a blurb on your site about what software you use and don't forget to mention Pine! Here are examples of people doing this:

    If you use Pico to edit your web pages, you might want to use one of the pico banners, which are available on Michael S. Ellars' Whatever site, to spread the word about Pine's composer.


    More Ads




    Thanks to...



    How You Can Show Your Appreciation for Pine

    To show your appreciation for Pine, please...

  • All About Pine: POP, IMAP, NNTP, & ESMTP Client for Unix, MS Windows, and Mac OS X
    Copyright © Infinite Ink & Nancy McGough

    updated 08-May-2006
    tweaked 27-Sep-2007